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a Re-solving the hardest textbook problems using the learned fragment grammar metatheory leads to an average of 31% more of the problem being solved. b illustrates a case where these discovered tendencies allow the model to find a set of six interacting rules solving the entirety of an unusually complex problem. c The metatheory comprises rule schemas that are human understandable and often correspond to motifs previously identified within linguistics. Left column shows four out of 21 induced rule schemas (Supplementary Fig. 6), which encode cross-language tendencies. These learned schemas include vowel harmony and spirantization (a process where stops become fricatives near vowels). The symbol FM means a slot that can hold any feature matrix, and trigger means a slot that can hold any rule triggering context. Middle column shows model output when solving each language in isolation: these solutions can be overly specific (Koasati, Bukusu), overly general (Kerewe, Turkish), or even essentially unrelated to the correct generalization (Tibetan). Right column shows model output when solving problems jointly with inferring a metatheory. Source data are provided as a Source Data file.
Our high-level goal was to engineer methods for synthesizing interpretable theories, using morphophonology as a testbed and linguistic analysis as inspiration. Our results give a working demonstration that it is possible to automatically discover human-understandable knowledge about the structure of natural language. Like linguists, optimal inference hinges on higher-level biases and constraints; but the toolkit developed here permits systematic probing of these abstract assumptions and data-driven discovery of cross-language trends. Our work speaks to a long-standing analogy between the problems confronting children and linguists, and computationally cashes out the basic assumptions that underpin infant and child studies of artificial grammar learning.
The book is designed to give learners of English a basic grammar foundation. This book takes a practical approach. It does not focus on rules and definitions. Instead, it studies how words work and what they do in sentences. As the learner moves through the book, he or she will gain an understanding of the basic principles of the English language.
Declaimer : The material in this book Free english grammar may be used freely for any non-commercial purpose; however, no changes to the content may be made without the express permission of the author.
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