A clear understanding of the macro-level contexts in which education impacts health is integral to improving national health administration and policy. In this research, we use a visual analytic approach to explore the association between education and health over a 20-year period for countries around the world.
Figure 2 depicts the analysis for all countries in the sample. The figure shows the years from 1995 to 2015 on the X axis. It shows two Y-axes with one axis denoting average infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births), and the other showing the rates from 0 to 120 to depict enrollment rates (primary/secondary/tertiary) and education levels (below secondary/upper secondary/tertiary). Regarding the Y axis showing rates over 100, it is worth noting that the enrollment rates denote a ratio of the total enrollment (regardless of age) at a level of education to the official population of the age group in that education level. Therefore, it is possible for the number of children enrolled at a level to exceed the official population of students in the age group for that level (due to repetition or late entry). This can lead to ratios over 100%. The figure shows that in general, all education indicators tend to rise over time, except for adult education level below secondary, which decreases over time. Infant mortality shows a steep decreasing trend over time, which is favorable. In general, countries have increasing health status and education over time, along with decreasing infant mortality rates. This suggests a negative association of education and enrollment rates with mortality rates.
In Fig. 9, each box represents a country or region; the size of the box indicates the extent of compulsory health expenditure such that a larger box implies that the country has greater compulsory health expenditure. The intensity of the color of the box represents the NEET rate such that the darker color implies a higher NEET rate. Turkey has the highest NEET rate with low health expenditure. Most European countries such as France, Belgium, Sweden, and Norway have low NEET rates and high health expenditure. The chart shows a general association between low compulsory health expenditure and high NEET rates. The relationship, however, is not consistent, as there are countries with high NEET and high health expenditures. Our suggestion is for most countries to improve the social education for the youth through free training programs and other means to effectively improve the public health while they attempt to raise the compulsory expenditure.
Figure 17 is a combination chart explaining the trends of tertiary school life expectancy and health expenditure, for all countries in the sample. The rationale is that if there is a positive association between the two, it would be worthwhile for the government to allocate more resources towards health expenditure. Both tertiary school life expectancy and health expenditure show an increase over the years from 1995 to 2015. Our additional analysis shows that they continue to increase even after 2015. Hence, governments are encouraged to increase the health expenditure in order to see gains in tertiary school life expectancy, which will have positive implications for national health. Given that the measured effects of education are large, investments in education might prove to be a cost-effective means of achieving better health.
On November 27, 2015 the Tanzanian government issued Circular 5 which implements the Education and Training Policy 2014 and directs public bodies to ensure that secondary education is free for all children. This includes the removal of all forms of fees and contributions. The Circular reads:
Funds of 18bn TZS (approximately 5.7m GBP) were immediately released to schools to cover the cost of implementing the new directive, with 137bn TZS (approximately 43.8m GBP) set-aside to cover the full cost of guaranteeing free secondary education for all.
The abolition of school fees at the secondary level is expected to increase enrolment and attendance, as occurred in 2002, when primary education was made free and the primary net enrolment rate jumped from 59% in 2000 to 94% in 2011.
In 2003, the government of Kenya instituted a free primary education for all program, and then did the same for secondary education in 2008. As a result, nearly three million more students were enrolled in primary school in 2012 than in 2003 and the number of schools has grown by 7,000. Between 2003 and 2012, the secondary gross enrollment ratio increased from 43 percent to 67 percent, as graduates from the new free primary program moved their way through the system. More recently, the impact of the 2003 education for all program has been seen at the university level, where enrollment numbers have skyrocketed, more than doubling between 2012 and 2014 as the initial cohort of free primary school children have begun enrolling in university studies.
Formal schooling begins at the age of six, with compulsory and free basic education running through to the age of 14. Students progress to the academic secondary cycle, technical schools, or trade schools from the basic cycle. Secondary schooling is also free but not compulsory.
Health coverage in England has been universal since the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948. The NHS was set up under the National Health Service Act of 1946, based on the recommendations of a report to Parliament by Sir William Beveridge in 1942. The Beveridge Report outlined free health care as one aspect of wider welfare reform designed to eliminate unemployment, poverty, and illness, and to improve education. Under the 1946 Act, the Minister of Health had a duty to provide a comprehensive, free health service, replacing voluntary insurance and out-of-pocket payments.2
The NHS number assigned to every registered patient serves as a unique identifier. All general practice patient records are computerized. Since April 2015, all GP practices have been contractually obliged to offer patients the choice of booking appointments and ordering prescriptions online. As of March 31, 2016, practices are required to offer patients access to their own detailed coded record, including information about diagnoses, medications and treatments, immunizations, and test results. Practices are not required to allow patients access to information that clinicians enter in free-text fields. When electronic records are not available to patients, such as in dentistry, they can request a paper copy.
Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science synthesizes and integrates the available research to provide guidance on assembling the science team; leadership, education and professional development for science teams and groups. It also examines institutional and organizational structures and policies to support science teams and identifies areas where further research is needed to help science teams and groups achieve their scientific and translational goals. This report offers major public policy recommendations for science research agencies and policymakers, as well as recommendations for individual scientists, disciplinary associations, and research universities. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science will be of interest to university research administrators, team science leaders, science faculty, and graduate and postdoctoral students.
The provision of at least one year of free and compulsory quality pre-primary education is encouraged, to be delivered by well-trained educators, as well as that of early childhood development and care.
It is imperative to reduce barriers to skills development and technical and vocational education and training (TVET), starting from the secondary level, as well as to tertiary education, including university, and to provide lifelong learning opportunities for youth and adults. The provision of tertiary education should be made progressively free, in line with existing international agreements.
Although their funding streams for higher education are now comparable in size and have some overlapping policy goals, such as increasing access for students and supporting research, federal and state governments channel resources into the system in different ways. The federal government mainly provides financial assistance to individual students and specific research projects, while state funds primarily pay for the general operations of public institutions.
Policymakers across the nation face difficult decisions about higher education funding. Federal leaders, for example, are debating the future of the Pell Grant program. The Obama administration has proposed increasing the maximum Pell Grant award to keep pace with inflation in the coming years, while members of Congress have recommended freezing it at its current level. State policymakers, meanwhile, are deciding whether to restore funding after years of recession-driven cuts. Their actions on these and other critical issues will help determine whether the shift in spending that resulted in parity is temporary or a lasting reconfiguration.
In a constrained fiscal environment, policymakers also will need to consider whether there are better means of achieving shared goals, including student access and support for research. Such approaches could entail more coordination, other funding mechanisms, or policy reforms. In addition, it will be necessary to think about the implications of parity and whether funding strategies will require changes in order to reach desired outcomes. This chartbook is intended to provide a starting point for answering such questions by illustrating the existing federal- state relationship in higher education funding, the way that relationship has evolved, and how it differs across states.
Although the federal and state funding streams are comparable in size and have overlapping policy goals, such as increasing access for students and fostering research, they support the higher education system in different ways: The federal government mostly provides financial assistance to individual students and funds specific research projects, while states typically fund the general operations of public institutions, with smaller amounts appropriated for research and financial aid. Local funding of $9.2 billion largely supports the general operating expenses of community colleges. For more information, see Appendix A. 2b1af7f3a8