The 2008 Ahmedabad bombings were a series of 21 bomb blasts that hit Ahmedabad, India, on 26 July 2008, within a span of 70 minutes. Fifty-six people were killed and over 200 people were injured. Ahmedabad is the cultural and commercial heart of Gujarat state and a large part of western India. The blasts were considered to be of low intensity and were similar to the Bangalore blasts, Karnataka which occurred the day before. This bombings were done by Islamic Terrorist group Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami.
The bombs were planted in Tiffin carriers on bicycles, a pattern similar to the 13 May 2008 Jaipur bombings. Many of the blasts targeted the city bus service of AMTS (Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service), ripping apart portions of the vehicles. Two blasts took place inside the premises of two hospitals, about 40 minutes after the initial series of blasts. One of the blasts in the hospitals occurred when injured victims of the initial series of blasts were being admitted there. Another bomb was found and defused on the following day in the Hatkeshwar area. Two live bombs were also retrieved from Maninagar, Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi's constituency.
Gujarat police recovered and defused two more bombs in Surat, another major city in Gujarat, a day after the Ahmedabad blasts. Two cars filled with materials required to make explosives, including detonators, were also found, one of them parked on a roadside near a hospital, and the other in the outskirts of Surat.
Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami has claimed the responsibility of the blasts. The email mentioned that "the innocent Muslims arrested in the (Mumbai), bomb blast case are being tried for years and years."
The threat of terror continued even after Ahmedabad blasts. The Gujarat police discovered an active bomb which was set to detonate at 12:00am IST in Hatkeshwar, Maninagar. A bomb squad was quick to respond and successfully managed to defuse the bomb in front of a large crowd, which rose to jubilation and applause upon bomb's defusion.
On Tuesday, 29 July, eighteen bombs were found in Surat, and were subsequently defused. They were found mainly in the diamond-processing and residential areas of Surat, within a span of just four hours. According to the Times of India, a top government official believed that the planting of so many "unexploded" bombs was probably a means to divert attention of the police from the ongoing blast probe. After Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi visited the city another bomb was found and defused by a bomb disposal squad. All in all, 23 bombs were found in three days in Surat.
In Tamil Nadu, Sheikh Abdul Ghaffoor, 39, was arrested with an alleged plan of carrying out bombings on Independence Day, 15 August 2008. The plot included bombing the state capital Chennai along with three other cities in Tamil Nadu and at least six trains. Meenakshi Amman Temple in Madurai is believed to be on top of the list for such terror attack. The man was detained with a large cache of explosives and two timer devices. Apparently, it is believed that the plot was revealed by an arrested leader, P Ali Abdullah, of a banned organisation, who has been serving sentences in an Indian jail since 2003. Chennai city police later on 1 August 2008 announced that the arrests were not linked with either the Ahmedabad or Bangalore blasts.
As the convoy got pinned down and fought with militia fighters,NATO fighter jets, operating under NATO, bombed it with two low-altitudeairburst GBU-12 500-pound bombs,spraying the vehicles and their occupants with shrapnel. The bombs and thesecondary explosions caused by the explosion of munitions that had been loadedon the vehicles killed many of the occupants of the vehicles, incineratingthose who were inside the vehicles near the center of the blast.On October 21, the day after the incident, Human Rights Watch counted 53 bodiesand 14 destroyed vehicles at the site of the airstrike, including 28 bodiesthat were burned beyond recognition, and 25 bodies of persons, the majority ofwhom appear to have died from shrapnel wounds caused by the airburst bombs andthe secondary explosions of the munitions in the vehicles.
The bodies were scattered over a large area comprising anelectrical power relay station, several walled villas, an open field, the twosides of the drainage pipes where Gaddafi and his inner circle were captured,and a water treatment plant several hundred meters away. While the majority ofthe bodies appear to have been killed in the fierce fighting and NATO bombingthat preceded the capture of Gaddafi, as evidenced from the severe shrapnel andblast injuries they suffered, at least some of the men appear to have beensummarily executed after the fighting.
Confidential email communication with NATO official who requested anonymity, onfile with Human Rights Watch, February 24, 2012; Human Rights Watch interviewwith Khalid Ahmed Raid, commander of the Eastern Coast militia, Sirte, October21, 2011. During a Human Rights Watch inspection of the site of the battle onOctober 21, 2011, Human Rights Watch researchers did not find any craters fromair-dropped bombs where the convoy had been attacked, suggesting that the bombsused were airburst above the convoy.
Blast injury victims often suffer multiple penetrating and blunt injuries to various body regions, cutaneous burns, and traumatic amputations. A recent review of over 3,000 victims of terrorist bombings reported a 13% immediate fatality rate and a 30% hospitalization rate for survivors . The ultimate hospital mortality rate for initial survivors was 1.4% for all victims, and 12.4% for the critically injured population. Head injury was the predominant cause of both the early and late deaths. Blast victims, when compared to non-blast trauma victims, are more often severely injured (ISS > 25), more frequently require surgical and intensive care unit (ICU) care, and require more prolonged hospitalization and rehabilitation [5, 7].
The incidence of terrorist bombing incidents has risen in recent years. Blast victims are unique because multi-system and multi-mechanism injury is the rule. Contrary to previous teaching, tympanic membrane rupture is not an accurate indicator of severity of injury. Primary blast lung injury usually manifests itself shortly after the explosion. If mechanical ventilation is required, the patient should be managed with a lung-protective strategy as commonly employed for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Long-term prognosis in survivors is excellent. Blast brain injury is a more common phenomenon than previously appreciated.
Though the first blast knocked him to the ground, Lambert kept his camera rolling. He spent the next hour documenting the impacts of the Oct. 28, 2012 bombing of al-Bara, a village in Idlib province an hour south of Aleppo. The result is a rare, immersive portrait of the immediate aftermath of Syrian government air strikes on a civilian population. 2b1af7f3a8